The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from what today is north east Afghanistan to Pakistan and north west India. It was one of three early and widespread cradles of civilisation along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Aridification of the region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but it eventually reduced the water supply to such an extent as to cause the civilisation’s demise, and to scatter its population eastward. At its peak, the Indus Valley Civilisation, which included such sites as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, may have had a population of over five million, who developed new techniques in pottery, seal carving, and metallurgy.
Indus Valley Chalcolithic Fertility Figure
From a collection of Indus Valley statuettes. A pale cream pottery figure of a seated female: the face has a hooked nose; typically large, sunken eyes; and tall headdress. She wears a tight collar around her neck, partly covering her breasts. Her hands and forearms are held in a horizontal position, and her feet are bare with toes pointed down.
Period: Early - Middle Bronze Age
Condition: Fine condition with light encrustations.