During the Medieval period, the wearing of brooch was very fashionable, with the buckle pinned at the neck as a fastener. Brooches of annular form were used by both men and women from the 12th century onwards, and became extremely popular during the 13th and 14th centuries. Usually they were made of bronze or silver, and in some cases in gold.
Romanesque art began to appear in Europe around 1000 AD, not giving way to the Gothic style until the 12th – 14th century (though this depends on the region). The styles and techniques used in the Romanesque period are similar to those of the Byzantine Empire. Objects of important practical use, such as signet rings and belt buckles, were turned into fine jewellery, with buckles being made from precious metal and decorated with precious stones and pearls.