Egyptian Steatite Scarab Dedicated to Ramesses II
A steatite Egyptian scarab beetle amulet with incised features such as clypeus, prothorax and elytra marked by single lines. The reverse is detailed with various hieroglyphs including the seated figure of the goddess Ma’at, a sun-disk, the head of canine animal and the basket sign.
The scarab clearly depicts the Egyptian figure of Ma’at, goddess of truth and justice, distinguishable by the ostrich feather upon her head. The hieroglyph of Ma’at can represent the goddess but equally, the qualities she represents, such as justice or truth. The glyph to the figure’s right represents the head of a canine animal and is known as the ‘wsr’ sign. It translates as powerful.
Transliterated the hieroglyphs read:
Adding the vowels, they read:
The justice of Ra is powerful
Circa 1279–1213 BCPeriod:
New Kingdom Period, Dynasty 19 Provenance:
from the Gustave Mustaki collection, a collector of antiquities who amassed a large collection in Alexandria (Egypt).Condition:
This combination of hieroglyphs and the phrasing was used in the Throne Name of Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great. He was the son of Seti I and a 19thDynasty, New Kingdom pharaoh. He is considered the greatest of the New Kingdom pharaohs, the golden age of Egypt’s Empire. His successors labelled him the ‘Great Ancestor’ so great were his achievements. He was known for his military successes, building on the foundations of his father Seti I, across Syria, Lybia and Nubia. As well as being a strong military campaigner, Ramesses is known for his vast architectural feats, building statues and temple complexes, the Ramasseum and Abu Simbel being the most illustrious. The colossal statue of Ramesses still exists to this day and can be found in the Grand Egyptian Museum in Giza.
To find out more about Ancient Egyptian amulets please see our relevant blog post: Egyptian Amulets and their Meanings.