This lamp can be dated to the 1st century AD and it’s shape and form are known as Loeschcke Type I B/C (so called after the lynchologist, S. Loeschcke, who established the universal typology of lamps).
Across the Roman Empire, a lamp was originally called a ‘lychnus‘, from the Greek ‘λυχνος’, with the oldest Roman lamps dating back to the third century BC. During the Roman Empire, the variation in decoration increased. Common decorative themes depicted on the discus included entertainment scenes (such as gladiators in combat), common myths and deities, and even animals. Pottery oil lamps could be made in three different ways: handmade, wheel made, or by mould. The use of the mould (which was made from clay or plaster) quickly became popular, because one mould could produce several lamps.
For more information about the meanings of animals in Roman art, see our relevant blog post: Animal Symbolism in Roman Art.
To discover more about oil lamps, please visit our relevant blog post: Lighting The Way.