The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from what today is north east Afghanistan to Pakistan and north west India and was one of three early and widespread cradles of civilisations along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Aridification of the region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation’s demise, and to scatter its population eastward. At its peak, the Indus Civilisation, which included such sites as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, may have had a population of over five million who developed new techniques in pottery, seal carving and metallurgy.
Indus Valley Jar with Bull Head Spout
A good-sized buff terracotta jar with spout and single handle. The spout has been modelled to depict the head of a bull with large eyes and open mouth. Opening at the top with rolled over rim. The body and handle have been decorated with dark umber, though this is now mostly obscured by a thin layer of earthy accretions. The vessel stands on a flat base.
Period: Early - Middle Bronze Age
Condition: Complete and intact with light encrustations.