Most Ancient Roman horse shoes features six nail-holes with some particularly large ones requiring eight. The addition of crampons or toe-pieces as well as caulkins and a groove indicates advancement in this particular craftsmanship.
Horses were an integral part of Roman society, fulfilling many roles. Horses were used in the Roman military, primarily as cavalry. These breeds were trained for battle for both pulling chariots and carrying soldiers riding horseback making them an essential asset in warfare. Outside of the military they were used extensively in agriculture, transportation and entertainment. Horses would be used for farm work, pulling ploughs, carts and wagons, but also used for racing and in gladiator contests. Horses were selectively bred for strength and speed and were valued for their ability to perform specific tasks.