Byzantine Hand Grenade with Geometric Designs


A Byzantine earthenware hand grenade featuring a hollow globular body with a pointed base. To the top, the vessel rises into a short neck with a raised collar and splays out slightly into a thick rim with a small mouth. This allowed the item to be filled with an explosive liquid known as ‘Greek fire’ and used as a hand grenade in battle. The mouth would have also accommodated a fuse to instigate the explosion. As typical for Byzantine grenades, this piece displays geometric patterns to its outer surface. A band of carved dots decorates the shoulder, framed by two circular grooves. The vessel is further enriched by twenty-three vertical lines of slightly different lengths featuring on the upper section of the body. Below, a series of shallow grooves which fade into the smooth unadorned sides.

Date: Circa 9th-11th century AD
Provenance: From a collection of a North London gentleman, latterly with a London gallery.
Condition: Very good condition. Some earthy encrustations on the surface. Minor chips to the rim and body.


Greek Fire, also referred to as liquid fire (ὑγρόν πῦρ, hygron pyr), was one of the most famous weapons of the Byzantine arsenal and its use played a crucial role in the defence of the Empire, ensuring its long survival. The formula for the flammable mixture was closely guarded for centuries and irredeemably lost after the collapse of the Empire. Its precise composition thus remains unknown to this day, though research suggests that petroleum was a vital ingredient making the liquid impervious to water. Greek fire was first used at sea where it was particularly effective against wooden ships; it was later delivered via clay grenades, either by hand or by launching with a catapult.

To find out more about Byzantine hand grenades please see our relevant blog post: Byzantine Fire Grenades.

Weight 709.1 g
Dimensions L 14.9 x W 9.6 cm


Pottery and Porcelain