A Byzantine earthenware hand grenade featuring a hollow globular body with a pointed base and an elongated knob placed on the shoulder. To the top, the vessel rises into a short neck with raised collar and splays out slightly into a thick rim with a small mouth. This allowed the item to be filled with an explosive liquid known as ‘Greek fire’ and used as a hand grenade in battle. The mouth would have also accommodated for a fuse to instigate the explosion. As typical for Byzantine grenades, this piece displays geometric patterns to its outer surface. A band of carved large dots runs unevenly around the body, dividing in half the frieze which comprises of parallel rouletted lines and carved triangles. Below the frieze, five circular grooves decorate the lower section of the vessel.
Date: Circa 9th-11th century AD Provenance: From a collection of a North London gentleman, latterly with a London gallery. Condition: Very good condition. Some earthy encrustations on the surface. Minor chips to the rim and body; a small hairline crack across the middle of the body.
Greek Fire, also referred to as liquid fire (ὑγρόν πῦρ, hygron pyr), was one of the most famous weapons of the Byzantine arsenal and its use played a crucial role in the defence of the Empire, ensuring its long survival. The formula for the flammable mixture was closely guarded for centuries and irredeemably lost after the collapse of the Empire. Its precise composition thus remains unknown to this day, though research suggests that petroleum was a vital ingredient making the liquid impervious to water. Greek fire was first used at sea where it was particularly effective against wooden ships; it was later delivered via clay grenades, either by hand or by launching with a catapult.
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